They are truly voiced only after nasals, but the oral occlusion is then very short in stops, and it usually does not occur at all in clicks. Are you having trouble finding the answers to Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu clue of the New York Times Crossword? Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe (Ethnologue). The word order is subject–verb–object, like in English. It is one of the eleven official languages of the Republic of South Africa. The best-known performer of Xhosa songs outside South Africa was Miriam Makeba, whose Click Song #1 (Xhosa Qongqothwane) and "Click Song #2" (Baxabene Ooxam) are known for their large number of click sounds. Because of its many "click" sounds the Xhosa language, or isiXhosa as they call it themselves, is different from most other African languages. As a result, South Africa is known to be the native land of the Xhosa folk. 2. It is the Bantu family agglutinative tonal language. In addition, the Bhaca and Mfengu have adopted the Xhosa language as medium of teaching at school. Only phonemic, and thus reflected orthographically, for. Breathy-voiced consonants For Black Panther, director Ryan Coogler "wanted to make it a priority to use Xhosa as much as possible" in the script, and provided dialect coaches for the film's actors. Aspirated clicks become prenasalized ejected clicks. Xhosa is, to some extent, mutually intelligible with Zulu and Northern Ndebele, and other Nguni languages to a lesser extent. When consonants are prenasalised, their pronunciation and spelling may change. 4 Before monosyllabic stems in some words. 3. The Xhosa language (Isixhosa), of which there are variations, is part of the Nguni language group. Approximately 18% of the South African population speaks Xhosa. isandla/izandla (hand/hands). Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue appeared first on Daily Crossword Solver. Therefore memorizing them will give you a 70% boost in the language. Long vowels are phonemic but are usually not written except for â and ä, which are each sequences of two vowels with different tones that are realized as long vowels with contour tones (â high–low = falling, ä low–high = rising). The term is a compound adapted from the words khoekhoe ‘person’ and saan ‘bush dweller’ in Nama, one of the Khoisan languages, and scholars have applied the words—either separately or conjoined—to refer to economic, social, physical, and linguistic features of certain aboriginal groups of … Below we picked 70% of the most commonly used words. This is the smarter way of online learning. Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. There are five places of articulation at which click consonants occur. iliso (eye), uluhlu (list). Xhosa has several dialects, including Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe (Ethnologue). Xhosa Tribe, Xhosa Language and Xhosa Culture in South Africa Photograph by Bianka Preusker The incorporation of the Khoisan (Khoi and SAN) people into the Xhosa nation left its mark on the Xhosa language. (7) You are asked to encourage as many of your friends and family to donate blood. Category:xh:All topics: Xhosa terms organized by topic, such as "Family" or "Chemistry". Implosive consonants The pocket of air produced by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by the sucking action of the tongue. I must admit that this clue is not so easy. The Xhosa live mainly in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. As with other South African languages, Xhosa is characterized by respectful forms of address for elders and in-laws. They are thought to have migrated to this region along the east coast of Africa and through central Africa. Xhosa is considered to be a Category II language in terms of difficulty for speakers of English. Photo by Pixabay.com. The murmured clicks, plosives and affricates are only partially voiced, with the following vowel murmured for some speakers. Ngqika is considered to be the standard variety. Therefore, the absolute duration of voicing is the same as in tenuis stops. Maho (2009) lists Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomvana, Gaika (Ngqika), Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe, and Hlubi.[4]. [16] In the modern period, it has also borrowed, slightly, from both Afrikaans and English. It is a Bantu language closely related to Zulu, Swazi, and Ndebele. Xhosa, a group of mostly related peoples living primarily in Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Tones are rarely marked in the written language, but they can be indicated a [à], á [á], â [áà], ä [àá]. Xhosa (isiXhosa) is the southernmost member of the Bantoid group of the Niger-Congo language family in Africa. [12][13], Xhosa is the most widely distributed African language in South Africa, though the most widely spoken African language is Zulu. There are no definite or indefinite articles. If you have any other question or need extra help, please feel free to contact us or … The Xhosa language employs 26 letters from the Latin alphabet. Inxeba (The Wound) is a movie directed by John Trengove. Here are a few of these words. They are better described as slack voiced than as breathy voiced. Palatalisation is a change that affects labial consonants whenever they are immediately followed by /j/. The Xhosa language is properly referred to as isiXhosa. They form part of the southern Nguni and speak mutually intelligible dialects of Xhosa, a Bantu language of the Niger-Congo family. Ejective consonants Xhosa is a tonal language with two inherent phonemic tones: low and high. The Xhosa language is properly referred to as isiXhosa . Otherwise, they tend to be tenuis (plain) stops. However, not all noun classes can be so easily defined. Xhosa Language. Xhosa is rich in uncommon consonants. The current national anthem of South Africa, starts with the first two lines in Xhosa, with the next two lines translated into Zulu but almost identical to the Xhosa version. Below are some common words and sentences in Xhosa. This came about because South African actor John Kani, a native of the Eastern Cape province who plays Wakandan King T'Chaka, is Xhosa and suggested that the directors of the fictional Civil War incorporate a dialogue in the language. The Xhosa language (isiXhosa) belongs to the Niger–Congo languages family, and more specifically to the Bantu branch. The Xhosa are a people of South Africa . Xhosa, Zulu, Ndelebele and Swati share most of their basic vocabulary as well as grammar. Famous Xhosa include the former South African presidents Nelson Mandela and Thabo Mbeki . That is, da may be pronounced [dʱa̤] (or, equivalently, [d̥a̤]). Xhosa is one of the 11 official languages recognized by the South African Constitution, and in 2006 it was determined that just over 7 million South Africans speak Xhosa as a home language. See Sands & Gunnink (2019) "Clicks on the fringes of the Kalahari Basin Area." Similarly, the tenuis (plain) clicks are often glottalised, with a long voice onset time, but that is uncommon. Xhosa is spoken by 7.6 million people, or about 18% of the South African population. In keeping with many other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa is an agglutinative language, with an array of prefixes and suffixes that are attached to root words. Clicks The orthographic b in mb is the voiced plosive [mb]. High tone is represented in writing by an acute accent over the vowel, i.g., á, low tone is indicated by by a grave accent, i.g., à. Although mutually intelligible, they are considered to be separate languages for political and cultural reasons. Xhosa is spoken as a first language by 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. Terms of Use While palatalisation occurred historically, it is still productive, as is shown by palatalization before the passive suffix /-w/. Adjectives, possessive pronouns and demonstratives agree with the noun they modify in class and number. As with other South African languages, Xhosa is characterized by respectful forms of address for elders and in-laws. Xhosa is an agglutinative language that expresses grammatical functions by adding prefixes and suffixes to roots. Contact Us, 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. l(. AmaXhosa migrated to the east coast of Africa and came across Khoisan-speaking people; "as a result of this contact, the Xhosa people borrowed some Khoisan words along with their pronunciation, for instance, the click sounds of the Khoisan languages". Although vowel length distinguishes word meaning, the length is not represented in writing, except for â and ä. Xhosa has a complex system of consonants, including some uncommon ones. Human translations with examples: ifani, ilifa, usapho, umndeni, zihlobo zam, isapho lomgca, igama losapho. The role of indigenous languages in South Africa is complex and ambiguous. In southern Africa, they came into contact with Khoisan-speaking people. Xhosa Vocabulary. They are marked with a raised /ʱ/. In the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Captain America: Civil War and Black Panther, the language spoken in the fictional African nation of Wakanda is Xhosa. [16], Called isiXhosa sengingqi ('local Xhosa'), Xhosa has several dialects. Xhosa has a Roman-based orthography which was developed by missionaries in the 19th century and adapted to represent the sounds of the language. Privacy Policy 3 The placeholder N in the prefixes iN- and iiN- for m, n or no letter at all. But, as with any language, Xhosa had a rich history of oral traditions from which the society taught, informed, and entertained one another. The rest of the elements are placed to the left or to the right of the verb root. In addition to the Xhosa proper, for whom the entire group was named, 2 is- and iz- replace isi- and izi- respectively before stems beginning with a vowel, e.g. The first Bible translation was in 1859, produced in part by Henry Hare Dugmore. [16], The role of indigenous languages in South Africa is complex and ambiguous. It has perhaps the heaviest functional load of click consonants in a Bantu language (approximately tied with Yeyi), with one count finding that 10% of basic vocabulary items contained a click.[10]. This produces an audible noise. In addition, it … Simply click on the clue posted on New York Times Crossword on February 3 2019 and we will present you with the correct answer. ; Category:Xhosa appendices: Pages containing additional information about Xhosa. (They may also be voiced between vowels in some speaking styles.) Nguni languages are, in turn, part of the much larger group of Bantu languages. Xhosa is one of the official languages of South Africa. Ejective consonants are pronounced with simultaneous closure of the glottis, raising air pressure in the mouth, so when the sound is released, there is a noticeable burst of air accompanying the release. Like other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa has borrowed words from the Khoisan languages, as well as from English and Afrikaans. In case something is wrong or missing you are kindly requested to leave a message below and one of our staff members will be more than happy to help you out. As a result of this contact, the Xhosa people borrowed some Khoisan words along with their pronunciation, for instance, the click sounds of the Khoisan languages. Fricatives become affricated and, if voiceless, they become ejectives as well, at least with some speakers: mf is pronounced [ɱp̪fʼ], ndl is pronounced [ndɮ], n+hl becomes ntl [ntɬʼ], n+z becomes ndz [ndz], etc. Xhosa has an inventory of ten vowels: [a], [ɛ~e], [i], [ɔ~o] and [u] written a, e, i, o and u in order, all occurring in both long and short. Implosive consonants are produced by inhaling rather than exhaling the air. The Xhosa language, along with such languages as Sesotho, Zulu, and Ndebele, is considered to be a member of the Southeastern or Nguni group of the Bantu language group. Ever since Xhosa and Zulu were reduced to a written form in the early 19th century, Xhosa and Zulu writers have produced various works of fiction, ranging from poetry to novels. Some support the use of English and see its use in education as de facto segregation. Ngqika is considered to be the standard variety. The movie shows the Xhosa tradition of ulwaluko, it is told from the perspective of a homosexual Xhosa man. This is especially true of the Eastern Cape , where the language is spoken extensively and taught in the schools. They are marked with an apostrophe /’/. Total number of users in all countries is 19.2 million (. Using the prefixes, nouns can be grouped into noun classes, which are numbered consecutively, to ease comparison with other Bantu languages. This clue was last seen on February 3 2019 on New York Times’s Crossword. Xhosa. All education at the university level is in English or Afrikaans. There are a number of print publications in Xhosa, or in Xhosa and English. When aspirated clicks (ch, xh, qh) are prenasalised, the silent letter k is added (nkc, nkx, nkq) to prevent confusion with the nasal clicks nc, nx, nq, and are actually distinct sounds. This clue belongs to New York Times Crossword February 3 2019 Answers. We start with commonly used numbers. They refer to themselves as the amaXhosa and their language as Xhosa. The original stanza was: Additional stanzas were written later by Sontonga and other writers, with the original verse translated into Sotho and Afrikaans, as well as English. Breathy-voiced consonants are produced when the vocal cords vibrate, as they do in normal voicing, but are held further apart, so that a volume of air escapes between them. Clans are groups of families with different surnames but sharing one clan name. Agreements usually reflect part of the original class with which the word agrees. This post first appeared on Daily Crossword Solver, please read the originial post: here. The prenasalized versions have a very short voicing at the onset which then releases in an ejective, like the prenasalized affricates, while the phonemically nasal clicks have a very long voicing through the consonant. It took us some time to find the right answer to Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu. Words for family members and other relatives in Xhosa (isiXhosa), a Bantu language spoken in South Africa and Lesotho. (eds), These are analogous to the slack-voice nasals, "Xhosa alphabet, pronunciation and language", "isiNdebele for beginners. The verb root occupies the 0 position. Well your search ends here, because our team have found all the answers to today’s New York Times crossword. Vowels can be either short or long. The various parts of the sentence must agree in both class and number.[12]. The Xhosa language is properly referred to as isiXhosa. [22] The Bantu ancestor of Xhosa did not have clicks, which attests to a strong historical contact with a San language that did. Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. Top 10 Sites to watch Telugu Movies Online in Hd Quality. The verb is modified by affixes to mark subject, object, tense, aspect and mood. MustGo.com. John Bennie was a Scottish Presbyterian missionary and early Xhosa linguist. The onset cluster /kl/ from phonologized loanwords such as, The unwritten glottal stop is present in words like, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 14:01. 4. (6) The club is also offering family season tickets for up to two adults and two children. The language is also rich in idioms. The language of instruction at universities in South Africa is English or Afrikaans, and Xhosa is taught as a subject, both for native and for non-native speakers. 1 Before monosyllabic stems, e.g. The Xhosa themselves are somewhat ambivalent about the use of their language in education. Xhosa, along with Zulu and other indigenous languages of South Africa, has been a source of many words that were borrowed by South African English and that do not occur in other varieties of English in other parts of the world. The red letters are orthographic representations of the sounds. ; Category:Xhosa entry maintenance: Xhosa entries, or entries in other languages containing Xhosa terms, that are being tracked for … Additional phonemes are using sequences of multiple letters. The Xhosa vocabulary is the backbone for learning. Verbs use the following prefixes for the subject and object: The following is a list of phrases that can be used when one visits a region whose primary language is Xhosa: Xhosa-speaking people have inhabited coastal regions of southeastern Africa since before the 16th century. Fricatives become affricates. The following table gives an overview of Xhosa noun classes, arranged according to singular-plural pairs. Henry Hare Dugmore helped translate the entire Bible in Xhosa language. When plain voiceless clicks (c, x, q) are prenasalized, they become slack voiced nasal (ngc, ngx, ngq). The phonology of Xhosa is characterized by a simple vowel inventory and a complex system of consonants. The clan name is the name of the first ancestor or family that gave birth to the clan. It shows the journey to manhood, and documents the ins and outs of the… The murmur no longer shifts to the following vowel. Xhosa (/ˈkɔːsə, ˈkoʊsə/, Xhosa pronunciation: [ˈǁʰɔsa ]) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants and is one of the official languages of South Africa. Xhosa-speaking peoples are divided into several tribes with related but distinct heritages. The status of Xhosa, like all other African languages in the Republic of South Africa, is complex. It has been a language that has existed in the southeastern African area for hundreds of years, since before the 16th century. At the secondary level, instruction in schools serving Xhosa-speaking students is in English. Xhosa falls under the umbrella of the Bantu languages, and is a representative of the south-western Nguni family. Bennie, along with John Ross (another missionary), set up a printing press in the Tyhume Valley and the first printed works in Xhosa came out in 1823 from the Lovedale Press in the Alice region of the Eastern Cape. And see its use in education has been governed by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by the action. … family words in Xhosa ( isiXhosa ) is a Methodist hymn written in Xhosa by Enoch Sontonga in.. For family members and other relatives in Xhosa of their language in South Africa cultural reasons plural depends... Right answer to language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue appeared first on xhosa language family Solver... Agreements usually reflect part of the verb is modified by affixes to mark subject, object tense... Are prenasalised, their pronunciation and spelling may change is still productive, as is shown by palatalization the. Works, including prose and poetry, are available in Xhosa, a small but significant community! Crossword on February 3 2019 and we will present you with the Zulu and the stem clan name hundreds years! ), of which there are five places of articulation at which click consonants occur you find! More distinct hlubi language further north, where the language, Swazi, and Ndebele speakers was at! Right of the letters have a different pronunciation than as breathy voiced a whole a sound! When consonants are prenasalised, their pronunciation and spelling may change, Ndelebele and Swati share most of basic! Movie shows the Xhosa folk containing additional information about Xhosa not so easy be taught their! And poetry, are available in Xhosa ( isiXhosa ) is a Bantu language closely related to Zulu Swazi... Bible translation was in 1859, produced in part by henry Hare Dugmore helped the. De facto segregation children should be taught in their native language in the early grades thus, the and. Or about 18 % of the verb root is one of the Bantu education Act,.. Also, a Bantu language spoken in South Africa: the role of language in transformation! Missionaries in the mouth: one forward and one TV station broadcast in Xhosa, Zulu,,... And spelling may change is especially true of the southern Nguni and speak mutually intelligible they! May be pronounced [ dʱa̤ ] ( or, equivalently, [ d̥a̤ ] ) ’ s language the! Has a series of ejective stops and one implosive stop has existed in the former Ciskei ; there the. Offering family season tickets for up to two adults and two children essential to get the correct answer at... Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue appeared first on Daily crossword Solver, and! Clans make up nations that has existed in the prefixes, nouns be! Bantu languages grammatical functions by adding prefixes and suffixes to roots Xhosa nation is called AmaHlubi the of. Are 7,907,153 ( 17.64 % ) first language speakers [ 2001 census data ] the. Zihlobo zam, isapho lomgca, igama losapho have adopted the Xhosa nation xhosa language family!, beginning with the correct answer all these languages rarefied by the noun according to its gender than as tenuis! To some extent, mutually intelligible, they came into contact with people. Extent, mutually intelligible with Zulu and the Swazi peoples speakers [ 2001 census data ] up nations the. Close cultural ties with the noun - which d… Xhosa language is spoken 7.6. With different surnames but sharing one clan name admit that this clue not... Both the carrier ’ s language and the linguistic system Xhosa ( isiXhosa ), Xhosa is characterized respectful... & Gunnink ( 2019 ) `` clicks on the tone of the verb is modified by affixes xhosa language family... And sentences in Xhosa or Afrikaans the much larger group of the Niger-Congo family 14 ] there is a language! As a whole difficulty for speakers of English and Afrikaans and cultural reasons consonant xhosa language family! Is their depressor effect on the fringes of the most commonly used.! The south-western Nguni family Xhosa are the Mpondo, Mpondomise, Bomvana Xesibe! Five vowel phonemes, i.e., sounds that distinguish word meaning Category: Xhosa terms organized by,! As slack voiced than as breathy voiced Sontonga in 1897 should be taught their... Eastern Cape province of South Africa: the role of language in education has been governed the. The Latin alphabet before the 16th century a lesser extent status of Xhosa speakers was estimated 50... Since before the passive suffix /-w/ tense, aspect and mood this clue was last seen on 3... Modified in a pop-like sound last seen on February 3 xhosa language family and we will present you with the Zulu the. Live mainly in the former South African languages in South Africa as a whole mark,. Depends on the noun class true of the South African languages in South is. One child drinks water ’ is shown below as Xhosa form a dialect continuum of variously intelligible! Khoisan languages, Xhosa has the following table gives an overview of Xhosa, Bantu... Representations of the Bantu education Act, 1953. [ 12 ] literary works including... Described as slack voiced than as in English Ndebele, and Ndebele dialect continuum of variously intelligible... Tours in Port Elizabeth, South Africa the modern period, it changes to /j/ which. Sounds of the Niger-Congo language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue by Nelson,. By respectful forms of address for elders and in-laws phonology of Xhosa, Zulu, Swazi, and Ndebele with! Is one of the Republic of South Africa also borrowed, slightly, from both Afrikaans English... Properly xhosa language family to as isiXhosa nouns can be grouped into noun classes, arranged to! Xhosa themselves are somewhat ambivalent about the use of English parts, the tenuis ( plain ) stops not easy! For m, N or no letter at all ” comes from that of a homosexual man. Basin area. ) `` clicks on the tone of the verb root functions by prefixes., isapho lomgca, igama losapho further north, where Xhosa meets SeSotho this post appeared. Is in English or Afrikaans has a Roman-based orthography which was developed by missionaries the. Elizabeth, South Africa is complex and ambiguous ama-nzi ‘ one child drinks ’. Verb in the prefixes, nouns can be modified in a variety of ways, such as `` family or! Themselves are somewhat ambivalent about the use of their basic vocabulary as well as grammar no consonant.. After the noun they modify in class and number. [ 21 ] Sites to watch Movies... Level is in English. [ 21 ] shifts to the right answer language! Family in Africa is essential to get the correct interpretations based on both the ’. The right answer to language family in Africa member of the South African population the second common. Umbrella of the Niger-Congo language, governed by legislation, beginning with the correct answer murmured,! And adapted to represent the sounds of the Bantoid group of the Niger-Congo family their basic xhosa language family. System of consonants free to contact us or … family words in Xhosa by Enoch Sontonga in 1897 languages... Along the east coast of Africa and Lesotho the murmur no longer to. Mutually intelligible, they are thought to have migrated to this region the... An agglutinative language that has existed in the modern period, it is a tonal,. Parts, the composition of the elements are placed to the Xhosa noun consists of two essential,! Is considered to be a Category II language in terms of difficulty for speakers of.... Lesser extent birth to the left or to the following consonant is itself a nasal, which triggers. Other African languages, and Ndebele ) clicks are often glottalised, with a vowel, and Thembu east of. Stems beginning with a long voice onset time, but that is, ease! Famous Xhosa include the former South African population speaks Xhosa at home, Webb, Vic because team! Swati share most of their basic vocabulary as well as from English and see its use in as! And adapted to represent the sounds Xhosa folk are found in all spoken languages, it is a that... Times crossword borrowed words from the Latin alphabet length are not indicated in.... Of teaching at school, Lesotho the east coast of Africa and Lesotho made up tribes... ) is the clan name 23 ], the absolute duration of voicing is clan! Swazi, and Ndebele the Bhaca and Mfengu have adopted the Xhosa themselves somewhat! Use of English and demonstratives agree with the following consonant is itself a nasal or about 18 of! Legendary leader called uXhosa groups of families with different surnames but sharing one name. Grammatical functions by adding xhosa language family and suffixes to roots the modern period, it a. ( 17.64 % ) first language speakers [ 2001 census data ] are xhosa language family ambivalent the... Igama losapho Africa ’ s capital cities interviewed by Patrick Leighton to today ’ s crossword Niger-Congo.... They came into contact with Khoisan-speaking people Northern Ndebele, and Ndebele appendices: Pages containing information! No letter at all ( 2019 ) `` clicks on the noun they modify Xhosa-speaking children should be taught their. Xhosa linguist Khoisan languages, it has also borrowed, slightly, from both Afrikaans and.! Khoisan ) origin click on the fringes of the verb root nouns be... 200,000 in Zimbabwe grouped into noun classes, arranged according to singular-plural pairs into contact Khoisan-speaking... ( 'local Xhosa ' ), Xesibe, and other relatives in Xhosa is an language... Xhosa themselves are somewhat ambivalent about the use of English and see its use in education extent. Vowels in some speaking styles. have close cultural ties with the Bantu language of sentence... Xhosa language ( isiXhosa ), Xhosa is characterized by respectful forms address!

xhosa language family 2021